Untreated wastewater is called raw sewage. It comes from homes, commercial buildings and industrial agriculture and may contain a variety of contaminants that can easily pose a health hazard if it is exposed to humans without treatment.

Untreated sewage usually contains human excrement such as urine and feces from flushing toilets; it may also contain things like toilet paper and wet wipes. However, toilet flushing is not the only cause of sewage. It is more likely to be the result of industrial site drainage, sewage treatment plant discharges, and wash water.

Pathogens in raw sewage can contaminate ecosystems in addition to making humans and animals sick. Untreated sewage usually contains viruses and bacteria as well as microorganisms that are harmful to health. Its hazards can be divided into four main categories: bacterial infections, viral infections, parasitic infections and accidents.

  1. Escherichia coli or E. coli a bacterium commonly found in the lower part of the small intestine and therefore also present in sewage. It is also closely associated with food poisoning.
  2. Salmonella a gram-negative and cold-tolerant bacterium that can survive outside its host and can cause gastroenteritis, typhoid and paratyphoid fever, all potential killers.
  3. Campylobacter jejuni – This bacterium is commonly found in animal feces and is one of the most common causes of gastroenteritis. Campylobacter is also present in sewage, so exposure to spilled untreated sewage can lead to potentially fatal infections.
  4. Cryptosporidium parasiticum a protozoan parasite that causes cryptosporidiosis can be found in sewage. Cryptosporidium can cause diarrhea in healthy people, but can be fatal in people who are already weak or unwell.
  5. Listeria monocytogenes is common in sewage and can cause a potentially fatal infection called listeriosis. Most infections in healthy adults cause only mild symptoms. However people with weakened immune systems, such as those with cancer and AIDS, can develop serious and potentially fatal diseases, including meningitis and sepsis.
  6. Adenovirus This virus is common in sewage. It can cause respiratory infections such as pneumonia, croup and bronchitis.
  7. Norovirus is known as the winter vomiting bug, also known as norovirus, and it is one of the most common causes of gastroenteritis worldwide. The virus is found in sewage.
  8. Choking sewers collectively refer to a variety of harmful gases as sewer gas. The gases include methane, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. This can have fatal consequences, especially for people who work in sewers or sewage treatment plants or have septic tanks.
  9. Drowning Sewage is usually a liquid, so unfortunately, people often drown in it.

Most people with adequate modern plumbing are not at high risk of exposure to dirty wastewater, unless a normal, reliable sewage system fails. There are some occupations such as those responsible for inspecting, maintaining or repairing sewers that may be exposed to it. So sewage can be risky and potentially deadly. Even in relatively small quantities, it should be considered a hazardous waste and handled with the utmost care. The treatment of municipal water requires effective solutions and specialized equipment to guarantee that the water in the park is treated properly and also to make a reliable supply of water for residential and industrial use.